Measurement technologies for CO2 transport and storage

There are many ongoing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects, and related to these, measurement of mass flow and tank levels is required at different points in CO2 transport and storage systems. Accurate flow measurements are required for both commercial and regulatory purposes, and tank level measurements are necessary for process control and mass balance calculations.

The market for fiscal CO2 flow metering equipment and tank level measurement systems is still in an early phase. Commercially available measurement equipment can only solve part of the measurement scenarios in ongoing and future CCS projects.

NORCE carries out a screening study on behalf of Equinor, Gassco and Total, evaluating a range of flow and level measurement technologies with respect to their applicability for CO2 flow and level measurements at different measurement points along the CO2 transport line. Measurement uncertainty at selected measurement points, and the impact on mass balance calculations is evaluated.

In the screening study, the capability and potential of various measurement technologies are considered for different pressure and temperature conditions giving gas phase, liquid phase or supercritical phase. As a case, process parameters relevant towards the Northern Lights project, part of the Norwegian full-scale CCS demonstration project, is considered. The evaluations are based on a combination of literature studies, discussions with vendors and uncertainty evaluations for selected technologies. It is also considered how metering technology targeted on fiscal measurement of gas and oil has potential for being adapted to CO2 metering for different measurement scenarios.