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Advanced in-situ sensors
NORCE has long experience with electromagnetic (EM) in-situ measurements, modelling and sensor development. EM measurements techniques are in general well suited for measurement of the ground moisture (water content in mixed materials), due to the large contrast between the dielectric properties of the water and other typical substances such as soil, rock, sediments, ice and snow. Both distributed measurement and point-based measurement techniques are available. Since slope hazards are often affected by ground wetness or the melting of ice/snow, in-situ EM measurements can be valuable both standalone and in combination with remote sensing techniques.
The last decade, NORCE has developed a significant project portfolio on fiber optic measurements, both for distributed sensing and point measurements. This includes applications where fiber optic measurements are used for detecting avalanches and landslides along roads and railways, measuring ground moisture and estimating snow water equivalent.