Mesoscale meteorology and oceanography concern the intermediate scales between the synoptic scales of atmospheric and oceanic weather systems and the scales of the turbulence these systems force at boundaries. It is the science of how the synoptic flow interacts with density and dynamic-pressure gradients arising internally and in the vicinity of bedform, landform and coasts.
• Offshore installations are prevalent close to coasts, where mesoscale processes may fundamentally affect winds, waves and currents.
• Detailed knowledge of site climatologies is essential in the design of offshore installations, and the cost and safety of installation and operation depend on how well conditions there may be forecasted.
• Mesoscale models may need to accommodate non-hydrostatic effects at their smallest scales.